Annotated Bibliography

 

Deutsch Karlekar, Karin and Cook, Sarah G. “Freedom on the Net: A Global Assessment of Internet and Digital Media.” Freedom House. 1 Apr 2009. Freedom House . Accessed 7 Apr 2009.

From this research study by Freedom House, I used pages 34 through 41, which relate directly to China.  This report states that China has the largest portion of internet netizens in the world, but also is the most government controlled or censored, and has the largest number of people imprisoned for cyber crimes (49 persons).  Even with the large number of users, China can boast less than a quarter of its population has access to and can use the internet.  A number of  laws and policies make it very difficult to get around the censoring, such as filtering, previewing information before internet publication, after publication censorship, and manipulation of regulatory measures used as a fear tactic to cause self-censorship.  This source also specifically lists out the organizations in charge of different areas of internet instruction, for prepublications, cyber cafes, user enforcement, games, news, educational sites, medicinal information, and others.

 

Egan, Annabel. “Regulatory Changes in China Against Evolving Media Freedoms.” Asia Europe Journal. 4.1 (2006): 77-85.

This article gives an overview of Chinese censorship of their media outlets.  The government began a crackdown on all forms of free speech in March 2005.  The scope includes television, radio, printed media, nonprinted media, music, and more.  Television news censorship monitors not only news content, but the appearance and speaking manner of reporters.  It discusses internet regulation by the government agencies pertaining especially to the use of technical filtering and sophisticated firewalls in addition to around the clock monitoring by government agents.  This article also mentions text message content censoring, and concludes with examples of cyber criminal arrests that have become internationally known.

 

Kluver, Randolph. “The Internet in China: A Meta-Review of Research.” Information Society 21.4: 301-08. 1 Mar. 2009 .

Chinese citizens use of the internet is an important topic, and this article tells about the different types of research the Chinese populace does on the internet. The findings of the study found that politics make up 39%, culture 18%, and economics 43% of articles researched and studied, although the study was conducted using English only, and not Chinese.  However, looking at each individual article researched shows that far and above the other categories was another not included: democratization and political control; it was sectioned under politics and economics.   This means that the Chinese people, particularly professors, journalists, researchers, and others are interested in democracy and human rights issues; and the internet, a source of information incredibly hard to regulate, may be the instrument of change for them.  This article also raises the question of what impact will China have on the internet, and how will China’s political, social, and cultural issues affect others since China will have the largest number of users throughout the world in the easily foreseeable future.

 

Marquand, Robert. “China Tames Wild, Wild Web.  (Cover Story).”  Christian Science Monitor      93.174 (02 Aug. 2001): 1. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO. Cameron University Library, Lawton, OK. 29 Mar. 2009 <http://ezproxy.cameron.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=afh&AN=4927349&site=ehost-live&gt;.

This article from 2001 discusses internet censorship in China.  At the time, the Chinese government began implementing and gaining control of parts of the internet, and the article tells about the closing of several thousand internet cafes, which are one of several primary sources the population uses to log on to the world wide web in China.  The author and several other professionals mentioned confer about censorship in China, and the measures being used to implement self-censorship borne out of fear.  This fear is caused through internet related arrests and ever-changing regulations.  In addition, it talks about the means used by Chinese government propagandists to use the internet for the advancement of the Communist Party.  The article also offers statistics relating to internet use in the country, but those have since changed, from 23 million when the article was published to 300 million today.

 

Qiang, Xiao. “The Rising Tide of Internet Opinion in China.” Nieman Reports. Volume 58 Issue 2. Summer 2004 103-104. 5 Apr 2009.

This article gives two very good examples of the important role played by the internet in China.  The first is Sun Zhigang, a college student arrested for not having the correct identity papers who was beaten to death while in police custody.  His story does not end there, however, because a national outcry went out over the internet, and thousands of online people signed a petition for recourse and disablement of the offending police force in only a few hours.  His family was given recourse through conviction of the police, and the unit was deemed corrupt and broken up.  The second example did not turn out as well.  An influential woman driving a BMW killed one peasant and maimed almost a dozen others, but was given a lenient sentence because of her connections.  After a public outcry on the internet, the government still upheld the ruling and blocked all comments from the news story, and deleted those previously posted.  The Chinese government did allow them to keep reporting on the story though.

 

Qiang, Xiao. “Chinese Whispers.” New Scientist 184.4 (27 Nov. 2004): 40. MAS Ultra – School Edition. EBSCO. Cameron University Library. Lawton, OK. 9 Apr. 2009 <http://ezproxy.cameron.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ulh&AN=15274397&site=ehost-live&gt;.

The history of blogging in China, staying barely one-step ahead of Chinese authorities at some times, is the topic for this article.  Blogging in China began to pick up dramatically and suddenly in 2003, prompting government officials to block blogging sites and increase watches on sites, but by that time, it was too late because so many people were online.  Therefore, the government took drastic measures and closed several thousand-internet cafes and blocked entire websites off from their populace deemed corrupted.  However, bloggers were already hooked and ably equipped; they made their own blogging sites inside China web space.  After that, there really was no stopping the blogosphere, and today, there are currently several hundred thousand bloggers, talking about everything, including censored topics such as sex and the government.

 

Shou, Yushu, and Nai-peng Chao. “Will People’s Voice Vanish?-An Empirical Study of the Impact of Internet Censorship on Individuals’ Online Political Communication in China.” Washington State University; Nanjing Uni, Chicago. 2007. Ebsco. Cameron University Library. 25 Feb. 2009 .

Internet censorship and its consequences on “netizen” views of their political system is the topic of this article. It discusses the measures taken by the CCP, or the China Communist Party, in regards to the internet, and what specifically is censored, which is mainly political information; also included is information regarding democracy, human rights, the Tiananmen Square occurrence, or Taiwanese or Tibetan independence.  The CCP is encouraging internet use by citizens for “soft uses”, which include entertainment, sports reports, economics topics, and even some porn.  But the internet, it says, offers ways to circumvent the walls in place, both technologically and using the internet’s operating philosophy of freedom of information. In addition, the study presented in the article tries to hypothesize the reactions of netizens to political stories on the internet, and the provoked effects the government may have occur.

 

Yisan, Wu. “Internet Censorship in China.” Dong Xiang Magazine 10 Nov 2006. Accessed 8 Apr 2009. <http://www.theepochtimes.com/tools/printer.asp?id=47995&gt;.

This article lists the statistics and the current occurrences brought about by the Chinese government because of their internet censorship policy in 2006.  China is the world’s top internet regulator, and as of the article publication date, the government felt it had done a good job keeping subversive or sensitive content from their people for their protection.  It gives a wonderful example of the censoring capabilities, citing 2.67 million hits for June 4, which is the Tiananmen Massacre date, on Google.com in the United States versus only 10,200 on Google.cn in China.  The article discusses the government’s periods of internet control, stating that currently there are not safe sites away from watchful eyes.  Regulations are especially aimed towards internet cafes and schools, which are second only to home usage on where the Chinese people can log on.  Lastly, the article discusses the future of internet media and other types of media in China, and praises the Chinese people for stretching the limits of the laws, and forcing the weaknesses of the governing party to show openly.

 

Zha, Wei. “Unwelcome But Applicable Mission: The Internet Censorship in China.” Louisiana State University. Ebsco. Cameron University Library. 25 Feb. 2009 .

The unwelcome but applicable mission referred to in the title is the goal of Chinese internet censorship. This article goes so far as to list examples of where and why internet censorship is good; i.e. for nationalism, and gives a brief history of times when censorship was used.  It gives a profile of the average internet user in China, which consists mostly of students involved in higher learning. The study in the article focuses on the methods used by the Chinese government to control and regulate the internet, and use it for a conducive political element of information and propaganda to accrue economic benefits to its people at the expense of free internet voice.  These methods include controlling internet growth in the country, carefully monitoring websites, occasionally or completely blocking internet access to some sites, and the sporadic cases of arrests stemming from “cyber crimes.”  Other controls are internet website registration, firewalls, filters, and offering government approved intranet for a lower cost than traditional internet.

 

Zhao, Jinqiu. “A Snapshot of Internet Regulation in Contemporary China: Censorship, Profitability, and Responsibility.” China Media Research 4.3: 37-42. 1 Mar. 2009.

This article focuses on news copyright and online satire in China and their effects. In addition, it outlines the “guarded openness” of governmental regulation today.  It begins with a brief history of the internet in China and the beginnings of Chinese legislation prohibiting “cyber crimes” of gossiping, defaming very important persons or groups, like the government, or comments on overthrowing the existing government. News copyrighting on the internet is a very important issue in that country because the government regulates all Chinese news, and online news websites are required to follow strict regulations for their operations, for example, the only place the sites are allowed to accrue news stories is from officially acknowledged news sites.  These sites most often get their news from print media, regulated by the government. Online satire has changed from tolerance to censorship because of criticizing comments being made about political or affluent individuals or officials, along with intolerance towards spoofs. At the end, the article raises thoughts about the formidable task of censoring the internet, and whether the government is up to the task.

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